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ELISAs available commercially for group A RVs. ELISAs for human RV OK for animal RV.
Latex agglutination: commercially available for group A; calf-side test.
Electron microscopy: RVs have a distinctive morphology. Also allows visualization of other enteropathogenic viruses Eg. coronaviruses & caliciviruses.
PAGE (Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of segmented viral nucleic acid: Used in some Veterinary Investigation Centres. Distinctive band patterns.
On tissues: Immunocytostaining - allows intestinal damage & RV infection to be correlated. Useful for smaller farm animals (pigs); early tissues samples at the beginning of diarrhoea essential before infected enterocytes lost. Single animal can give diagnosis.
Rising antibody titres: not useful because majority of animals have high levels of rotavirus antibody in serum.